Around the Pattern

Ramblings about flying for fun and profit.

Category: Military Flying (Page 3 of 4)

Aviation History – Air Refueling the C-5, Part 2

This is the second half of a 2-part post on air refueling the Lockheed C-5. Part 1 of Air Refueling the Lockheed C-5 may be found here.

Air Refueling the C-5, Moving In

We left off with the receiver in the pre-contact position with both aircraft ready to conduct air refueling.  Lockheed C-5 Air Refueling, view from tanker.At this point, the boom operator is looking at something like this.You can see the air refueling receptacle just aft of the cockpit with the white lead-in strips to help the boom operator. The refueling door is open.

There is a centerline stripe painted on the bottom of the tanker to help with alignment as you move into the contact position. The boom operator “flies” the boom with the two wings shown in the photo, moving it left or right and up and down through an arc. The inner portion of boom telescopes out to press into the refueling receptacle.Lockheed C-5 moving into the air refueling contact position.

The bottom of the tanker has two rows of indicator lights, one on either side of the centerline stripe. In the photos they look like dark bars. These lights provide an indication of the receiver position with respect to the ideal refueling position. There is a “box” of airspace that the receiver must remain within. The box dimensions are determined by the lateral and vertical limits of movement of the refueling boom and the limits of the extension and retraction of the inner portion of the boom. If you are the refueling pilot and sitting in the left seat it is easy to think of the left row of indicator lights being controlled by your left hand (the yolk moving the aircraft up or down) and the right row of lights being controlled by your right hand (throttle moving the aircraft forward or aft). This is not completely true, of course, because the arc movement of the boom means a movement forward will not only compress the boom, but cause it to move downward in the arc. It is a good generalization, though. As I remember, each end of the light bar (forward and aft) has a red light, meaning you are nearing a disconnect. Then there are three or four amber lights on each side of a center green light. The center of the refueling envelope is attained when you have two green lights illuminated, one on each set of lights. Until the boom is latched into the refueling receptacle, the indicator lights are manually controlled by the boom operator.

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Aviation History – Air Refueling the C-5, Part 1

I had originally intended to post a single article on Lockheed C-5 air refueling, but I have been typing away and see that it is way too long for a single post, so I’ll break it up into two parts. Part 2 will be up in two days.

Air Refueling Procedures

Before we get into the specifics of air refueling a C-5, let’s figure out how the two airplanes find each other and arrive in a position to refuel. The C-5 is intended to be loaded up with the cargo to be moved, then fueled to reach the intended destination or to attain the maximum takeoff weight. Boeing KC-135 and Lockheed C-5 Air Refueling. If the amount of fuel boarded is not enough to complete the flight, an air refueling mission is planned. When an air refueling mission is required, an air refueling track is reserved and a tanker (either a KC-135 or a KC-10) is assigned to the mission. Air refueling tracks are mini-airways set aside for military use for refueling missions. The military flight planning publications list all of refueling tracks, the altitudes that are available and what agency controls them. Click on the photo to see it large enough to read the information. There are several column labels across the top that we’ll talk a little about. (There is no telling the age of this air refueling track information. Do I need to put a label on it saying “Not For Navigation Purposes” ?)

Air Refueling Track Information.

The first column gives the track identifier. Let’s look at AR106L (East). The next four columns are navigation points that define the track. If you were to plot them on a chart they would define a relatively straight line starting near Hill City, KS and ending east of Rapid City, SD. The column ARIP is the Air Refueling Initial Point, ARCP is the Air Refueling Contact Point. and the other two labels are self-explanatory. CR Plan is the Communications/Rendezvous Plan and references setting for the communications and identification equipment found on the respective aircraft. The remaining columns list the altitudes available, who schedules the track and who handles air traffic control of the aircraft on the track. There is also an ARCT involved with the operation which is not listed. The Air Refueling Contact Time is the time both aircraft are to be at the ARCP. It is established when the track is reserved. (Enough letters for you?)

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Aviation History – Chapter 2.5 – Lockheed C-5 Landing Gear

I’ve been doing research for the next post on air refueling, which should be up in a couple of days. In the process I found these two videos which  show the operation of the Lockheed C-5 landing gear.  I tried to describe the operation in words in my last post covering some of the unique features of the C-5 but I don’t think the words  described the contortions very well. This is another instance where a picture (video) provides a much clearer description.

The first video is actually an animation developed using a flight simulator program. It is titled “30-knot crosswind”, but it starts out showing the aircraft on the ground with the aircraft kneeled, the forward and aft cargo doors open and the ramps extended. The animation closes the ramps and doors and un-kneels the aircraft, then moves the aircraft to the runway for a takeoff. The landing gear retraction sequence is shown clearly. The video goes on to make a landing or two, ending with one it says it is with the strong crosswind. I had hoped to see the crosswind gear in operation, put it is not evident.

The second video runs a little bit longer and was taken at an open house airshow at the Dover, Deleware C-5 base. The aircraft takes off and makes several fly-bys, with and without landing gear operation and then makes a short-field landing, stopping in front of the crowd. If you listen closely you can hear the airshow announcer describing the aircraft. The video provides a good view of the aircraft in flight and allows you to hear the unique sound associated with the C-5 engines.

 

Hangar test of Lockheed C-5


Lockheed C-5 Landing Gear Operation during taxi and takeoff

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